Unified Kernel Image

Unified Kernel Image (UKI) #

A Unified Kernel Image (UKI) is a combination of an UEFI boot stub program, a Linux kernel image, an optional initrd, and further resources in a single UEFI PE file. This file can either be directly invoked by the UEFI firmware (which is useful in particular in some cloud/Confidential Computing environments) or through a boot loader (which is generally useful to allow multiple kernel versions with interactive or automatic selection of version to boot into).

Various components of the UKI are provided as PE/COFF sections of the executable. The stub is a small program that can be executed in UEFI mode that forms the initial executable part of the combined image. The stub program loads other resources from its executable, including in particular the kernel and initrd, and transitions into the kernel.

This specification defines the format and components (mandatory and optional) of UKIs.

systemd-stub provides the reference implementation of the stub.

UKI File Format #

The file format for UKIs is PE/COFF (Portable Executable / Common Object File Format). This is a well-known industry-standard file format, used for example in UEFI environments, and UKIs follow the standard, so exact details will not be repeated here.

UKIs are a PE/COFF file with various resources, listed below, stored in PE sections. In principle this file can be created with a relatively simple objcopy invocation, but the recommended way is to use a helper program ( ukify), which takes care of appropriate alignment and facilitates signing for SecureBoot.

UKIs are UEFI applications images, and hence should initialize the Subsystem field of the optional PE header to 0x0A (i.e. IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_EFI_APPLICATION).

UKI Components #

UKIs consist of the following resources:

  • An UEFI boot stub that forms the initial program. It contains various PE sections normally required for a program, including .text, .reloc, .data, and others.
  • The Linux kernel in the .linux PE section.
  • Optionally, information describing the OS this kernel is intended for, in the .osrel section. The contents of this section are derived from /etc/os-release of the target OS. They can be useful for presentation of the UKI in the boot loader menu, and ordering it against other entries using the included version information.
  • Optionally, the kernel command line in the .cmdline section. If this is absent, the loader implementation may allow local overrides instead.
  • Optionally, the initrd that the kernel shall unpack and invoke, in the .initrd section.
  • Optionally, a microcode initrd in the .ucode section, to be handed to the kernel before any other initrd.
  • Optionally, a splash image to bring to screen before transitioning into the Linux kernel, in the .splash section.
  • Optionally, one or more compiled Device Trees, for systems which need it, each in its separate .dtb section. If multiple .dtb sections exist then one of them is selected according to an implementation-specific algorithm.
  • Optionally, information describing kernel release information (i.e. uname -r output) in the .uname section. This is also useful for presentation of the UKI in the boot loader menu, and ordering it against other entries.
  • Optionally, a CSV file encoding the SBAT metadata for the image, in the .sbat section. The SBAT format is defined by the Shim project, and used for UEFI revocation purposes.
  • Optionally, a JSON file encoding expected PCR 11 hash values seen from userspace once the UKI has booted up, along with signatures of these expected PCR 11 hash values, in the .pcrsig section. The signatures must also match the key pair described below.
  • Optionally, the public part of a public-private key pair in PEM format used to sign the expected PCR 11 value of the image, in the .pcrpkey section.

Note that all of the sections defined above are singletons: they may appear at most once, except for the .dtb section which may appear multiple times.

Only the .linux section is required for the image to be considered a Unified Kernel Image.

A UKI will generally also contain various sections required for the boot stub, but we don’t document those here.

Boot menus such as sd-boot and other consumers of UKIs may place additional requirements, for example only show kernels with the .osrel section present.

PE Addons #

UKIs are PE executables that may be executed directly in UEFI mode, and contain a variety of resources built-in, as described above. Sometimes it’s useful to provide a minimal level of modularity and extend UKIs dynamically with additional resources from separate files. For this purpose UKIs can be combined with one or more “PE Addons”. This are regular PE UEFI application binaries, that can be authenticated via the usual UEFI SecureBoot logic, and may contain additional PE sections from the list above, that shall be used in combination with any PE sections of the UKI itself. At UKI invocation time, the EFI stub contained in the UKI may load additional of these PE Addons and apply them (after authenticating them via UEFI APIs), combining them with the resources of the UKI.

PE Addons may not contain .linux PE sections (this may be used to distinguish them from UKIs, which must have this section, see above).

PE Addons must contain at least one section of the following types:

  • .cmdline
  • .dtb
  • .ucode

PE Addons should be sorted by their filename, and applied in this order. In case of .cmdline all command lines provided by addons are suffixed in this order to any command line included in the UKI. In case of .dtb any such section included in the UKI shall be applied first, and those provided by add-ons should then by applied in order as a fix-up. In case of .ucode the contained cpio archives should be prefixed to the regular initrds passed to the kernel, in reverse order.

PE Addons may include sections of multiple types (e.g. both a .cmdline and a .dtb section), in which case all of them should be applied.

Just like UKIs PE Addons should have the Subystem field of the optional PE header set to 0x0A.

The PE header’s Machine field should be set to the local CPU type for the target machine of the Addon. When enumerating PE Addons to apply, candidates should be skipped when their header field reports a non-native CPU architecture.

PE Addons may contain executable code in a .text section. This code may be useful to write a friendly error message to the UEFI console when executed as regular programs. The code should be ignored when the addon is applied on an UKI.

UKI TPM PCR Measurements #

On systems with a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) the UEFI boot stub shall measure the sections listed above, starting from the .linux section, in the order as listed (which should be considered the canonical order). The .pcrsig section is not measured.

For each section two measurements shall be made into PCR 11 with the event code EV_IPL:

  1. The section name in ASCII (including one trailing NUL byte)
  2. The (binary) section contents

The above should be repeated for every section defined above, so that the measurements are interleaved: section name followed by section data, followed by the next section name and its section data, and so on.

If multiple .dtb sections are present, they shall be measured in the order they appear in the PE file.

JSON Format for .pcrsig #

The format is a single JSON object, encoded as a zero-terminated UTF-8 string. Each name in the object shall be unique as per recommendations of RFC8259. Strings shall not contain any control character, nor use \uXXX escaping.

When it comes to JSON numbers, this specification assumes that JSON parsers processing this information are capable of reproducing the full signed 53bit integer range (i.e. -2⁵³+1…+2⁵³-1) as well as the full 64bit IEEE floating point number range losslessly (with the exception of NaN/-inf/+inf, since JSON cannot encode that), as per recommendations of RFC8259. Fields in these JSON objects are thus permitted to encode numeric values from these ranges as JSON numbers, and should not use numeric values not covered by these types and ranges.

The content is a JSON object, named after the TPM SHA bank to use, containing an array of measurement objects, each containing an array of PCRs, the SHA256 fingerprint of the public key (DER) used for the signature (pkfp), the expected hash (pol) and the signature encoded in base64 (sig).


    "sha1": [
            "pcrs": [
            "pkfp": "2870989436ec5c24461f36f5f070613043c30a156a895903e27fc985d1b2887f",
            "pol": "4a5cfbca5123490989ac060ec8b1755cfa6f0ea37ec39206e988442a9a9023bb",
            "sig": "X9a07Peo0EaEWr0dfUgZIq3Bsf20AGTjAgMilyH3TkLtPBGJLCEFRzK2jkPohG0VXQjao35765Wp/sV1wfctGC0fx9GOsBzK8YKjsFitOw21aLxlnES31D3PbDLPRqkx+fAhwV0/Akd99hNuiyzGdUewNpbbBNo7WXkd4K62RK61dKKI4g//qtLeAyXlee0TLKVxNcT46Ud1t8eUb1GAwRnO7DxBZx8uFyP/D9wpPNK7+M01to74d9ijcsjLXf2eGKcpiDvenUnhI6ua+OvT6CnmgxkFQutLGz/Ka23spSG/YJHfxGT7VpOYveDG19nqBb/fg30HZiY7lVTolS93UA=="
    "sha256": [
            "pcrs": [
            "pkfp": "2870989436ec5c24461f36f5f070613043c30a156a895903e27fc985d1b2887f",
            "pol": "707f5d03325822b2a53bfe5d723e0ca290f397c0e6184131b70d00e35224488a",
            "sig": "moQh6GF18LiVlA8CxRkTtbXr2p0NIIBosLazDALZ9lOJQw/w1PB7tcDZ1Kumvzqtx4FO5WVjOkVTnNFrYmXn9K2PpqIDEuTtwaM/lKgP12LtcC635C+VsJMQg3k9sEFfLwBCzrhYxt5GCpxzPrsfwJtsUpueB23sNw27WJS7C+tVnqWw7br6i9vJ59jP9+HXlex+OlZHliHLzZwpuZA8iPMQT0xvm901ak5yoBqNPv4Yya19dlt2sCuO+Iw1LeZW9U83zdG0hn1mxavRIxZ7s0f7a1n/ScrOksgPQB8xfDdFDf9fssGALanOgjCHyD7hRzV31++Qpgah4uc/LJiesg=="

The systemd-measure tool can be used to generate and sign .pcrsig.

Updatability #

UKIs wrap all of the above data in a single file, hence all of the above components can be updated in one go through single file atomic updates, which is useful given that the primary expected storage place for these UKIs is the UEFI System Partition (ESP), which is a vFAT file system, with its limited data safety guarantees.

Security #

Given UKIs are regular UEFI PE files, they can thus be signed as one for Secure Boot, protecting all of the individual resources listed above at once, and their combination. Standard Linux tools such as sbsigntool and pesign can be used to sign UKI files. The signature format and process again match the ones already used for PE files, so they will not be redefined here.

Locations for Distribution-built UKIs Installed by Package Managers #

UKIs that are built centrally by distributions and installed via the package manager should be installed in /usr/lib/modules/$UNAME/, where $UNAME is the output of uname -r of the kernel included in the UKI, so that tools staging or consuming UKIs have a common place to store and look for them.

The installed UKIs should have a filename <version format specification>.efi, i.e. the filename is left to implementers but must be valid for comparisons according to the Version Format Specification.

Locations and Naming for UKI Auxiliary Resources #

Auxiliary UKI resources (such as PE addons for kernel command line extensions and similar, as well as systemd-sysext and systemd-confext DDIs) built centrally by distributions and installed via package manager should be installed into locations depending on whether they should be applied to all UKIs installed in the ESP, or only to a single specific UKI.

UKI auxiliary resources that apply to all installed UKIs should be installed into /usr/lib/modules/uki.extra.d/. UKI auxiliary resources that apply to one specific installed UKI should be instead installed into /usr/lib/modules/$UNAME/$UKI.efi.extra.d/, where $UNAME is the output of uname -r of the kernel included in the UKI and $UKI is the name of the corresponding centrally built UKI with the .efi extension stripped.

The installed UKI auxiliary resources must have a specific file extension, which depends on the resource type:

  • .addon.efi for PE addons,
  • .sysext.raw for sysext DDIs,
  • .confext.raw for confext DDIs

Example #

Given a UKI bar_123.efi that includes a kernel 6.9.1-1.foo, consider

  • a PE addon machine-id that should apply to all installed UKIs,
  • a PE addon proprietary-driver_2000 that is specific to the bar_123 UKI, and
  • a sysext mysysext_1.23.47^3 that should apply to all installed UKIs.

The resulting paths would be

  • /usr/lib/modules/uki.extra.d/machine-id.addon.efi,
  • /usr/lib/modules/6.9.1-1.foo/bar_123.efi.extra.d/proprietary-driver_2000.addon.efi, and
  • /usr/lib/modules/uki.extra.d/mysysext_1.23.47^3.sysext.raw.